Rainwater Harvesting
  Rainwater Harvesting and Artificial Recharge
  Diminishing Water Resources Country's Biggest Challenge
  Rainwater Harvesting - The Need of The Hour
  Master Plan for Artificial Recharge to Ground Water in Maharashtra State
Scheme on Artificial Recharge through Dug wells
Success stories
 
Rainwater Harvesting and Artificial Recharge Top
 
Rainwater harvesting is practiced since historic times all over the world and in India too. There are many forts and prestigious ancient buildings where the emergency and routine water requirements were met from the rainwater harvesting. Of late, due to spread of the piped water supply policy in urban pockets and later in rural pockets too, the rainwater harvesting culture vanished except at few regions like arid and hilly areas. Growing population and increasing consumerism has put heavy pressure on the water supply schemes. Per capita consumption of water has increased with time and water requirements for agriculture, industrial and recreational needs have also increased with the same pace.
 
 
Diminishing Water Resources Country's Biggest Challenge Top
   
 
In India water demand is increasing year after year. In year 1997-98, water demand was 629 km3 / year which is projected to be 1180 km3 / year in year 2050.The growth in population has reduced the per capita availability of water, which was around 5000 cubic metre during pre-independence period of the country. Due to further growth in population, it is projected that per capita water availability would be less than 1000 cubic metre in year 2050 and country would be in the water stressed category.
 

 

 
Ground water irrigation has provided social equity and poverty reduction. Poor farmers are better represented than rich farmers as regards to ground water utilisation. Small and marginal farmers represent around 29% of agricultural areas whereas they account for 35% to 38% of the net areas irrigated by dug wells and tube/borewells. Ground water has therefore emerged as a tool for poverty reduction in rural India. It has also helped in removing the regional disparity of agricultural production. The special agricultural strategy launched for eastern India comprising eastern UP, Bihar, West Bengal, Assam, Orissa and Eastern Madhya Pradesh in 1980 relied on ground water development. Rice production in this region increased rapidly. West Bengal and Bihar registered fastest growth in rice production. India became the second largest rice exporter by exporting 5 million tonns in 1995-96.
   
 
Excessive development of ground water resources has led to decline in ground water level and yield resulting in water scarcity in many parts of the country. In these areas total amount of ground water utilised by the human beings exceed the amount of replenishment occurring under the normal recharge conditions. Threat to ground water sustainability has occurred at many places. Ground water storage in these areas depleted leaving the aquifers dry or nearly dry. Every year, the list of such areas is increasing, forcing the planners and the concerned fraternity to look into this aspect with all seriousness.
   
 
Rainwater Harvesting and Artificial Recharge - The  Need of The Hour Top
   
 
Rainwater harvesting is practiced to for augmenting the water supply, and involves catching and storing the rainwater through appropriate technique of collection, transportation, filtration, storage and utilisation. Thoughtful planning based on scientific considerations and common sense and related factors are must for the techno-economically feasible design of rainwater harvesting schemes acceptable to the common man. The rainfall, geology, physiography, land use, climatic conditions and social set up are the basic factors to be understood by the rainwater harvesters to choose the proper technique of rainwater management in a particular set up identified by them.
   
 
Study of rainfall pattern, amount and intensity, nature and type of catchment area (roof, garden, paved areas, storm water drains), topography and physiography of the area are mainly taken into consideration. However, understanding of the geological set up and behaviour of the ground water level have major role in selecting the areas feasible for rainwater harvesting. Disposition of geological strata below the ground surface is understood to estimate the underground storage space availability. The deeper water level indicates the higher scope of rainwater harvesting for artificial recharge to ground water. Occurrence of very deep ground water levels suggests to use bore wells/tube wells as recharge structures instead of dug-well. Small catchments are preferred for rainwater harvesting so as to have a better control in maintaining the cleanliness. The roof top rainwater is comparatively pure and clean and requires nominal filtration. However the storm water harvesting in garden, open premises whether cemented/grass covered, roadsides etc., require proper filtration before recharging. The quality of storm water must be taken into consideration, as impure and polluted water if harvested and used for recharge would pose serious health hazard. The steep slopes, hilly areas, river bank areas, plane and undulatory terrains need site specific strategy of either storage option or ground water recharging option. The climatic set up like arid, semi arid, humid, tropic, sub tropic etc., also suggest to choose the type of storage. The underground storage is preferred in arid/semi arid areas to avoid high evaporation. Land use factor indicates that land availability for construction of large reservoir is a major problem in densely populated urban pockets. Reservoirs for recharging the ground water therefore need to be constructed at the outskirts, and underground sumps and recharge through the existing water supply wells should be emphasised. Similarly combination of physiography and geology may lead to selection of different options of rainwater storage. The addition of rainfall factor into it would further change the type and method of rainwater harvesting selected otherwise. The demand of water and period of scarcity is also considered in planning and designing of rainwater storage structures. The social acceptance and economics and availability of land are main human factors, which influence the planning of rainwater harvesting and must be addressed properly along with scientific factors.
   
 
The individually owned as well as community controlled rainwater-harvesting schemes are required in urban areas. The success of such schemes depends upon the people’s participation. The appropriate, convenient and easy to operate schemes would be accepted automatically. Motivation and proper training of women and youth would be required in immediate future to ensure people’s participation in managing and operating the rainwater harvesting schemes.
   
 
Principal artificial recharge structures feasible in the state are percolation tanks, cement plugs and recharge shafts. Other structures can be constructed for soil conservation, moisture restoration, ground water conservation and runoff conservation. These would help in recharging the ground water also. These structures therefore, have secondary role as far as artificial recharge to ground water is concerned.
 
 
Master Plan for Artificial Recharge to Ground Water  Top
 
   
 
The State of Maharashtra falls in four major river basins namely the  Godavari (49%), Krishna (22.6%), Tapi-Purna (16.7%) and Coastal tract. These basins represent varied hydrogeology, rainfall and agroclimatic features. Considering the size of basins, Godavari and Krishna are further subdivided
into smaller sub-basins. The plan for artificial recharge is prepared considering the hydrogeological parameters and hydrological data base. The steps adopted in preparation of the plan are as follows.
   
  Identification and prioritization of need based areas for artificial recharge to ground water.
  Estimation of sub-surface storage space and quantity of water needed to saturate the unsaturated zone (up to 3 m bgl)
 
Quantification of surface water requirement and surplus annual run-off availability of source for artificial recharge in each sub-basin.
 
Working out design of suitable recharge structures, their numbers, type, storage capacity and efficiency considering the estimated storage space and available resource.
  Cost estimates of artificial recharge structures required to be constructed in identified areas.
   
 
Methodology  
  The methodology adopted for preparing the plan for the artificial recharge is presented below.
 
1. Data Preparation:The base map on 1:2,000,000 scale showing administrative boundary upto Taluka level, sub-basin boundaries along with prominent drainage is prepared. A decadal average DTW (showing the different ranges of DTW at 3 m intervals) map based on Hydrograph Station data for post monsoon period is prepared and superimposed and then transferred the data on the above base map. Over the map, the post monsoon water level trend map showing ranges of water level rise and fall trend was superimposed.
   
 
2. Identification of Feasible Areas: Based on three layered information mentioned above the area feasible for artificial recharge have been demarcated into 4 categories as follows:
   
  Areas showing water level between 3 and 6 m bgl and also declining trend (>0.10 m/year)
  Area showing water level between 6-9 m bgl and also declining trend (>0.10 m/year)
  Water level between 6 and 9 m bgl and also declining trend (<0.10 m/year).
  Water level more than 9 m bgl,
   
 
The areas of above 4 categories are demarcated on base map and are plani-metered and respective areas are identified as feasible for artificial recharge to ground water in order of preference, if required.
   
 
3. Watersheds Identified for Artificial Recharge: The Maharashtra state has been divided into 1505 watersheds. The areas identified for artificial recharge measures have been compiled into watersheds, talukas and districts. Total 422 watersheds have been identified in the master plan for artificial recharge, out of which some of the watersheds are in parts. The list of watersheds pertaining to each district of the state is given in Appendix 1.
   
 
4. Estimation of Available Storage Space: The thickness of available unsaturated zone (below 3 m bgl) of above 4 categories is estimated by considering the different ranges of water level. The different range of DTW at 3m interval are averaged to arrive at thickness of unsaturated zone effectively.
   
 
The total volume of unsaturated strata is calculated by considering the above categories and unsaturated thickness of different ranges. This volume was then multiplied by average specific yield on area specific basis to arrive at the net amount of water required which is to be recharged by artificial recharge to saturate the aquifer up to 3 m bgl. (refer Table 1)
  Table -1: Estimated Sub-surface Storage Potential of Vadose Zone through Artificial Recharge To Ground Water (Post Monsoon Season)
 
SR.NO.
NAME OF THE BASIN
NAME OF THE SUB-BASIN
GEOGRAPHICAL AREA (sq.km)
AREA INDENTIFIED FOR ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE (sq.km)
VOLUME OF UNSATURATED ZONE (MCM)
AVERAGE SPECIFIC YIELD
TOTAL STORAGE POTENTIAL AS VOLUME OF WATER(MCM)
1
GODAVARI
G-1 Upper Godavari
G-2 Pravara
G-3 Purna
G-4 Manjra
71666
25922
70833
0.02
1417
2
 
G-7 Penganga
21870
1840
2760
0.02
55
3
 
G-8 Wardha
21645
6094
22821
0.02
456
4
 
G-9 Wainganga
30091
4920
9540
0.015
143
5
 
G-10 & G-11 Indravati
5822
140
630
0.015
9
 
Sub total
 
151094
38916
106584
 
2080
6
 
K-154 16 Upper Krishna
-
560
1240
0.02
25
7
 
K-17213 Upper Bhima
-
1294
3375
0.02
68
8
 
K-19 (Sinna-Bori)
-
4998
13809
0.02
276
 
Sub total
 
69420
6852
18424
 
369
9
 
Hard rock
38550
5899
37579
0.02
752
10
 
Tapi alluvium
5200
5200
62400
0.07
4368
11
 
Purna Alluvium
7500
7500
51000
0.07
3570
 
Sub total
 
51250
18599
150979
 
8690
12
   
31650
900
5658
0.02
133
13
   
1540
NIL
NIL
-
NIL
 
Total
 
304954
65267
281645
 
11252
 
5. Surface Water Requirement: After assessing the actual volume of water required for saturating the vadose zone, the actual requirement of source water is to be estimated. Based on the experience gained in the field experiments, an average recharge efficiency of 75% of the individual structure is only possible. Therefore, to arrive at the total volume of actual source water required at the surface, the volume of water required for artificial recharge calculated at step No. 7 is now to be multiplied by 1.33 (i.e. reciprocal of 0.75). (refer Col. No.4 and Col. No. 5 of Table No.2)
   
 
6. Source Water Availability: The surface water resources available in various basins and sub basins were based on information provided by state government. The data available for each sub basin includes committed runoff, reserve for future planning and surplus water available. The availability of source water was worked out by adding the amount of surface water provided for future planning and surplus available. This availability so worked out is for the entire sub-basin and not for the requirement of the areas identified for artificial recharge (refer column 4 of table-1). Hence, to account for requirement of identified area, apportioning of surface water availability was done. (refer column 6 of Table-2).
   
 
7. Run-off considered for Artificial Recharge Planning: For planning the artificial recharge structures in each sub basin of Maharashtra, the amount of surface water availability and storage volume was matched to arrive at the feasibility of the scheme (refer column 4 of Table -3).
   
 
Planning of Suitable Recharge Structures  
 

Hydrogeologically, the areas have been broadly grouped into hard rock and alluvial areas. In hard rock areas i.e. Godavari, Krishna, Coastal basins and part of Tapi-Purna, the surface spreading techniques consisting of percolation tanks and cement plugs/bunds are most appropriate. In alluvial areas, i.e., part of Tapi and Purna basins, the percolation tanks in mountain fronts and recharge shaft in alluvial/ bazada zone are most appropriate. Accordingly, these structures have been recommended for artificial recharge.
   
 
Other structures like contour trenches, gabbian structure, nala bunds, village ponds etc. may also be taken up side by side which would be more appropriate for soil and moisture conservation. The under ground bandharas or sub surface dykes are ground water conservation structures and hence be taken up a site specific location to conserve the ground water at appropriate locations.
 
 
Table - 2: Requirement and Availability of Surface Water Resources for Artificial Recharge to Ground Water In Major Sub-basins of Maharashtra
 
SR.NO.
SUB. BASIN
AREA IDENTIFIED FOR ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE (Sq.km)
SUB SURFACE STORAGE POTENTIAL (MCM)
SURFACE WATER REQUIREMENT RECIPROCAL OF (75% efficiency) (MCM)
PROPORTIONATE NON COMMITTED WATER RESOURCES(AVAILABLE AS SURPLUS/KEPT FOR FUTURE PLANNING (MCM)
1
2
3
4
5
6
 
A) GODAVARI BASIN
       
1
Upper Godavari (G1 to G4)
25922
1417
1889
269
2
Penganga (G-7)
1840
55
73
40
3
Wardha (G-8)
6094
456
608
203
4
Wainganga (G-9)
4920
143
191
589
5
Indravati (G-10 & G-11)
140
9
12
8
 
Sub-total
38916
2080
2773
1109
 
B) KRISHNA
       
6
Upper Krishna K-15 and K-16
560
25
33
366
7
Upper Bhima K-17 & K-18
1294
68
91
174
8
Sinna & Bori K-19
4998
276
368
558
 
Sub total
6852
369
492
1098
 
C) TAPI-PURNA
       
9
Hard rock
5899
752
1003
305
10
Tapi alluvium
5200
4368
5824
270
11
Purna alluvium
7500
3570
4760
389
 
Sub total
18599
8690
11587
964
 
D) COASTAL
       
12
BASIN
900
113
151
Adequate
13
NARMADA
NIL
NIL
NIL
-
 
 TOTAL
65267
11252
15003
3171
 
Table 3: Plan of Artificial Recharge to Ground Water by Suitable Principal Recharge Schemes using Surface Water Resources.
 
S.NO
NAME OF THE BASIN

NAME OF THE SUB BASIN

AMOUNT OF SURFACEWATER CONSIDERED FOR PLANNINGARTIFICIAL RECHARGE TO GROUND WATER MCM
RESOURSES TO BE HARNESSED BY
ESTIMATED COST OF STRUCTURES(CRORES)
PERCOLATION TANKS (AVERAGE GROSS CAPACITY 200TCM)
CEMENT PLUGS (AVERAGE GROSS CAPACITY 30 TCM)
RECHARGE SHAFT (30 TCM CAPACITY)
PERCOLATION TANKS
CEMENT PLUGS
RECHARGE SHAFT
MCM
NOS.
MCM
NOS.
MCM
NOS.
1
GODAVARI
G-1 Upper Godavari
G-2 Pravara
G-3 Purna
G-4 Manjra
269
188
940
81
2700
         
2
 
G-7 Penganga
40
28
140
12
400
         
3
 
G-8 Wardha
203
142
710
61
2033
         
4
 
G-9 Wainganga
191
134
670
57
1900
         
5
 
G-9 Wainganga
8
5
25
3
100
         
 
Sub Total
 
711
497
2485
214
7133
   
497
143
--
6
KRISHNA
K-154 16 Upper Krishna
33
23
115
10
333
         
7
 
K-17213 Upper Bhima
91
64
320
27
900
         
8
 
K-19 (Sinna-Bori)
368
258
1290
110
366
         
 
Sub Total
 
492
345
1725
147
4899
   
345
98
--
9
TAPI-PURNA
Hard Rock
305
213
1065
92
3066
         
10
 
Tapi Alluvium
270
189
945
--
--
81
1350
     
11
 
Purna Alluvium
389
272
1360
--
--
117
1950
     
 
Sub Total
 
964
674
3370
92
3066
198
2300
674
61
46
12
Coastal Basin
 
151
106
528
45
1500
   
106
30
 
 
Total
 
2318
1622
528
498
16598
198
2300
1622
332
46
  · Total cost of Principal recharge schemes is 2000 crores
   
 
1. Storage Capacity of Recharge Structures: The storage capacity of recharge structure was worked out based on the findings of various artificial recharge studies under taken in Maharashtra for planning the future storage capacity of considered schemes.
   
 
A percolation tank of 100 Thousand Cubic Metre (TCM) capacity (single filling) will actually store 200% more due to multiple fillings during monsoon. This will have gross storage capacity of 200 TCM.
 
A cement plugs of 10 TCM capacity (single filling) will actually store 300% more due to multiple filling in monsoon. This will provide gross storage of 30 TCM for cement plugs.
  A recharge shaft on an average will recharge 1 TCM/day with 60 operational days during monsoon and post monsoon.
   
 
2. Number of Recharge Structures: The number of recharge structures required to store and recharge the ground water reservoir have been worked out as follows:
                                      Total surface water considered (column 4 of Table 3)
No. of structures = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              Average gross capacity of PT/CP (considering multiple fillings)
 
The amount of surface water considered for planning the artificial recharge is 2318 MCM. Based on the field situation it has been considered that 70% storage would be through percolation tank and remaining by check dams and recharge shafts. Accordingly 70% of it, i.e., 1622 MCM, will be stored in percolation tanks, 498 MCM will be stored in Cement plugs/check dams and 198 MCM through recharge shafts. Therefore, 8108 percolation tanks, 16598 cement plugs/check dams and 5600 recharge shafts are proposed in the identified areas of Maharashtra. The percolation tanks should be constructed on second and third order drainage, on favorable hydrogeological and physiographical locations. The cement plugs can be constructed on any order of drainage in hard rock areas. The density of structures per sq. km is to be planned realistically to make it implementable on practical considerations.
   
 
Cost Estimates  
   
The cost estimate for principal artificial recharge schemes viz. percolation tank, cement plug and recharge shaft and for other secondary schemes viz. nala bund, contour trenches, gabbian structures, underground dykes etc. are worked out as follows:
   
 
1. Principal Schemes: Based on the experiences gained from centrally sector artificial recharge studies, it is observed that the cost of recharge schemes depends upon the specific situations. At present the average cost of construction of a PT (100 TCM single filling storage capacity) is around Rs. 20 lakhs. The cost of cement plugs or masonry check dam of 10 TCM single filling capacity is Rs. 3 lakhs. The average cost of one recharge shaft is Rs. 2 lakhs. Therefore, an expenditure of Rs. 2,000 crores is estimated to undertake the constructions of proposed recharge structures. The unit cost of storing the water in percolation tanks and cement plugs is worked out as Rs. 11956/- per TCM. The unit cost of recharge from recharge shaft is worked out as Rs. 4166/- per TCM.
   
 
2. Secondary Schemes: The secondary schemes which are indirectly augmenting the ground water are also acting as water and soil conservation measures e.g. nala bunds, contour trenching, gabbian structure, Kolhapur type weirs and village tanks etc., alongwith under ground dykes and fracture cement sealing are also recommended. The numbers and size of these minute structures be specified in the master plan of state level. Therefore, a tentative provision of 25% of the cost expenditure on principal scheme is recommended. Therefore, Rs. 500 crores is provided for these schemes.
   
 
The plan of artificial recharge in the first phase will therefore involve a total expenditure of Rs. 2500/- crores (2000 + 500 crores).
   
 
Area to be benefitted from Recharge Impact  
 

The impact of artificial recharge to ground water shall be created mainly at the down stream side of recharge structures. This area will normally be maximum during the end of monsoon and a distinct rise in ground water level will be observed as compared to other areas not receiving the additional recharge. It estimated that the maximum influence of recharge schemes proposed in Master Plan will be distinctly observed in around 15600 Sq. Km. area at the monsoon period. A rise of 2 to 5m in water level shall be observed depending upon the quantity of recharge and variation in specific yield. This will also result in saving of energy, as the suction lift of pump sets would be reduced by 2 to 5m.
   
 
Additional Land to be brought under Irrigation  
 

The impact of artificial recharge although will be witnessed in around 15600 sq. km., the entire area will not be brought under assured irrigation. Therefore the calculation of additional area to be brought under assured irrigation from the proposed recharge schemes has been done. Considering the prevailing cropping pattern the Delta factor of 0.5 m/year is adopted for further calculations.
   
 
It is estimated that a total of 5,336,00 ha. additional land can be brought under assured irrigation during Rabi & Kharif seasons. The scheme wise additional irrigation from percolation tanks, cement plugs, recharge shafts and supplementary schemes would be 3,23,300 ha., 74,700 ha., 35,600 ha. and around 1,00,000 ha. respectively. This will also provide sustainability to the ground water round the year and dependability on tanker water supply will be reduced significantly in proposed areas.
   
  Feasibility of Artificial Recharge in Urban Areas
   
 
Urban Water Supply is one of the core issues to the civic authorities of the state. In order to cater to the need of ever growing demand of safe drinking and domestic water supply, the ground water based supply is the most dependable alternative. Every household prefers to construct a dug well or bore well in their premises. However, its sustainability specially in hard rock formation is a problem during the summer and drought years. The ground water resources are under stress in many urban areas due to shrinkage of recharge area caused by sudden spurt in constructional activities and ashaphalting of roads etc. The un-abashed and un-planned development of ground water is witnessed in urban peripheries and unauthorized / illegal layouts causing environmental degradation and lowering of water levels.
   
 
In view of above, there is a need to augment the ground water recharge in feasible areas of the urban centers. Artificial recharge, therefore is needed to enhance the ground water availability which will be a positive approach for the sustainable water supply round the year. Considering the over all demographic, climatic, hydrogeological, physiographic and socio-economic set up of the urban areas, following schemes are proposed for ground water augmentation through artificial recharge techniques.
   
  1. Roof-top rainwater harvesting.
  2. Runoff rainwater conservation.
   
 
These schemes are feasible in densely populated urban pockets where land availability for construction of tanks/reservoirs etc. is almost non-existent. There are 349 urban towns in 30 districts covering about 6214.3 sq. km of the state. The state has three metropolitan cities namely Mumbai, Pune and Nagpur covering about 15% of urban area of the state. There are 9 municipal corporations and 228 municipalities in the state. The urban population density varies from 751 persons per sq. km in Satara to 16,432 persons per sq. km in Mumbai.
   
  The district wise statistics of urban areas of Maharashtra is given in Table 4. There are 53,25,000 pucca houses in use in the state as per 1991 census.
  Table 4: District Wise Statistics of Urban Areas in Maharashtra State (1991 Census)
 
Sl.NO.
NAME OF DISTRICT
NOS. OF URBAN TOWN
TOTAL URBAN AREA OS TOWN(SQ. KM)
TOTAL POPULATION DENSITY (PER SQ. KM.)
NO. OF HOUSES IN USE
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
Mumbai
1
603
16432
15, 00,000
2
Thane
23
232.4
14600
730,000
3
Raigarh
19
133.3
2463
67000
4
Ratnagiri
8
80.4
1717
26,000
5
Sindhudurga
4
29.5
2141
13000
6
Nasik
17
344.4
3975
243000
7
Dhule
17
101.9
5101
88000
8
Jalgaon
17
182.46
4794
157000
9
Ahmednagar
13
391.5
1360
99000
10
Pune
34
621
4520
565000
11
Solapur
10
414
5442
163000
12
Satara
10
354
751
50000
13
Sangli
8
299.9
1675
95000
14
Kilhapur
12
191.7
4105
146000
15
Aurangabad
8
106.1
6835
131000
16
Jalna
4
34.5
6688
39000
17
Beed
7
234.9
1392
58000
18
Latur
5
74.6
4583
57000
19
Osmanabad
8
241.4
803
34000
20
Nanded
13
211.1
2398
13000
21
Parbhani
11
220.7
2156
80000
22
Buldana
11
58.5
6672
68000
23
Akola
10
150.0
4243
110000
24
Amravati
11
160.0
4488
133000
25
Yavatmal
10
68.00
5249
66000
26
Wardha
6
29.8
9467
54000
27
Nagpur
28
331.2
6132
370000
28
Bhandara
8
73.08
3777
54000
29
Chandrapur
12
174
2855
102000
30
Gadchiroli
4
66.1
1036.82
14000
 
Total
349
6214.34
137850
5325000
   
 
The statistics of 30 major cities which are districts headquarters is given in Table 5. These cities have 2046.3 sq. km of urban areas and there are 35,49,000 houses in use in these cities (1991 census).
   
 
Roof-Top Rainwater Availability - Approach Adopted  
 

The assessment of roof top rainwater availability has been done on the basis of roof top area and normal rainfall both during monsoon and non-monsoon period by multiplying a factor to take care of losses due to various reasons.
   
 
1. Roof-Top Area: The data regarding number of houses in towns, district and divisional headquarters has formed the basis of calculation of roof top area. The exact size of individual house is not available, therefore an average roof size is adopted as 50 sq. metre for calculation of roof area.
   
 
The roof area of urban towns of each district is calculated as given in Table 6. The total urban roof area in Maharashtra works out to be 266.25 sq. km. which is 4.3% of the total urban geographical area. The roof area of 30 district headquarters is 177.25 sq.Km. which is 8.7% of the corresponding geographical area of these district headquarter. The roof top area in 3 metropolitan cities of the state is 10.2 % of their geographical areas. The statistics of 30 major cities are given inTable 7.
   
 
2. Rainwater availability from Roof-Top: The estimation of water available from roof top harvesting is worked out by multiplying the roof area with normal rainfall data available for monsoon period. The details of district wise roof water availability works out to be as 290.8 MCM during monsoon and 12 MCM during non-monsoon periods. Table 7 indicates the rainwater availability at district headquarters during monsoon ( June - September ) as 194.4 MCM and during non monsoon (November - March ) as 7.3 MCM.
   
 
The above quantity of Rainwater is received at roof top, but same is not available down the roof due to various losses in the form of moisture absorption, evaporation losses and leakage etc. Therefore, 90% of the above figure is considered available for harvesting the rainwater which will be taken as source for artificial recharge to ground water at feasible locations.
   
  Table 5: Statistics of Major Urban Areas in Maharashtra
 
Sr.No.
NAME OF DISTRICT
URBAN AREA OF DISTRICT HQ (SQ. KM.)
TOTAL POPULATION DENSITY
(PER SQ. KM.)
NO. OF HOUSES IN USE
1
2
3
4
5
1
Mumbai
603
16432
1500000
2
Thane
86.7
14883
287000
3
Raigarh
14.8
1638
5000
4
Ratnagiri
10.5
5384
11000
5
Sindhudurga
4.5
2578
2000
6
Nasik
177.1
4119
144000
7
Dhule
46.1
5985
47000
8
Jalgaon
62.29
3888
45000
9
Ahmednagar
31.8
6909
48000
10
Pune
166
10404
342000
11
Solapur
33.11
18249
107000
12
Satara
8
10213
16000
13
Sangli
84.2
4320
68000
14
Kolhapur
67.2
6228
55000
15
Aurangabad
50.5
11737
108000
16
Jalna
25.9
6756
30000
17
Beed
8.3
546
20000
18
Latur
7.1
27808
35000
19
Osmanabad
11.2
6073
12000
20
Nanded
27.1
11929
51000
21
Parbhani
63.4
3456
38000
22
Buldana
9
5883
10000
23
Akola
21
15710
59000
24
Amravati
53
7901
81000
25
Yavatmal
10
12182
23000
26
Wardha
8
12878
20000
27
Nagpur
217.6
7468
293000
28
Bhandara
16.83
4278
13000
29
Chandrapur
93
3771
72000
30
Gadchiroli
29.1
1015.8
7000
 
Total
2046.33
 
3549000
   
  Table 6: Roof-Top Rainwater Availability in Urban Area in Maharashtra State (District wise)
 
SR.NO.
NAME OF DISTRICT
TOTAL ROOF AREA (sq. km)
VOLUME OF Rainwater ON ROOF TOP (TCM)
GENERAL DTW RANGE (m bgl)
AQUIFER
MONSOON
NON-MONSOON
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
Mumbai
75.0
104475
2055
3.0 to 6.0
Basalt
2
Thane
36.50
65992
927.1
<3.0
Basalt
3
Raigarh
3.35
6043.4
86.09
<3.0
Basalt & Laterites
4
Ratnagiri
1.30
3166.8
55.51
3.0 to 15.0
Basalt & Laterites
5
Sindhudurga
0.65
1504.75
37.3
3.0 to 12.0
Basalt & Laterites
6
Nasik
12.15
8019
639.09
3.0 to 15.0
Basalt
7
Dhule
4.40
2270.4
183.04
6.0 to 15.0
Basalt & Alluvium
8
Jalgaon
7.85
5424.35
3575.96
3.0 to 40.0
Basalt & Alluvium
9
Ahmednagar
4.95
2351.25
285.61
6.0 to 15.0
Basalt
10
Pune
28.25
14209.75
1146.95
3.0 to 15.0
Basalt
11
Solapur
8.15
4205.4
456.4
3.0 to 12.0
Basalt
12
Satara
2.50
2067.5
159.75
3.0 to 12.0
Basalt
13
Sangli
4.75
1705.25
237.5
3.0 to 9.0
Basalt
14
Kolhapur
7.30
5540.7
414.64
3.0 to 9.0
Basalt
15
Aurangabad
6.55
3936.55
364.83
6.0 to 9.0
Basalt
16
Jalna
1.95
1011.85
52.06
6.0 to 9.0
Basalt
17
Beed
2.90
1603.7
171.39
3.0 to 12.0
Basalt
18
Latur
2.85
2653.06
67.54
6.0 to 12.0
Basalt
19
Osmanabad
1.70
1137.3
82.62
6.0 to 12.0
Basalt
20
Nanded
6.50
5063.5
378.3
3.0 to 9.0
Basalt & Crystalline
21
Parbhani
4.00
2820.0
286.0
3.0 to 9.0
Basalt
22
Buldana
3.40
1485.8
233.24
3.0 to 15.0
Basalt
23
Akola
5.50
3767.5
349.8
3.0 to 18.0
Basalt & Alluvium
24
Amravati
6.65
4934.3
4565.85
3.0 to 18.0
Basalt & Alluvium
25
Yavatmal
3.30
3052.25
232.98
3.0 to 9.0
Basalt & sedimentary
26
Wardha
2.70
2632.5
192.78
3.0 to 9.0
Basalt, Crystalline & Sedimentary
27
Nagpur
18.5
19776.5
1504.05
3.0 to 12.0
Basalt, sedimentary & Crystalline
28
Bhandara
2.70
3304.8
235.71
3.0 to 6.0
Basalt, Crystalline & Sedimentary
29
Chandrapur
5.10
5666.1
340.17
3.0 to 9.0
Crystalline & Sedimentary
30
Gadchiroli
0.70
972.09
49.63
3.0 to 9.0
Crystalline
 
Total
266.25
290793.6
12029.89
   
Table 7: Roof Top Rainwater Availability in Urban Area (District HQ) in Maharashtra
 
SR.NO.
NAME OF DISTRICT
TOTAL ROOF AREA (sq. km)
VOLUME OF Rainwater ON ROOF-TOP (TCM)
DTW RANGE (m bgl)
AQUIFER
MONSOON
NON-MONSOON
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
Mumbai
75.0
104475
2055
3.0 to 6.0
Basalt
2
Thane
14.35
25944.8
364.14
<3.0
Basalt
3
Raigarh
0.25
451
6.42
<3.0
Basalt
4
Ratnagiri
0.55
1339.8
23.48
3.0 to 6.0
Basalt
5
Sindhudurga
0.10
231.5
4.2
<3.0
Basalt
6
Nasik
7.2
4752.0
378.72
3.0 to 6.0
Basalt
7
Dhule
2.35
1212.6
97.76
3.0 to 6.0
Basalt & Alluvium
8
Jalgaon
2.25
1554.75
102.6
9.0 to 12.0
Basalt & Alluvium
9
Ahmednagar
2.40
1140.0
138.48
6.0 to 9.0
Basalt
10
Pune
17.10
8601.3
694.26
1.0 to 6.0
Basalt
11
Solapur
5.35
2760.6
299.6
3.0 to 6.0
Basalt
12
Satara
0.80
661.6
51.12
<3.0
Basalt
13
Sangli
3.40
1220.6
170.0
3.0 to 6.0
Basalt
14
Kolhapur
2.75
2087.25
156.2
<3.0
Basalt
15
Aurangabad
5.40
3245.4
300.78
3.0 to 9.0
Basalt
16
Jalna
1.50
778.35
40.05
3.0 to 9.0
Basalt
17
Beed
1.00
553
59.10
3.0 to 6.0
Basalt
18
Latur
1.75
1629.07
41.47
3.0 to 6.0
Basalt
19
Osmanabad
0.60
401.4
29.16
3.0 to 9.0
Basalt
20
Nanded
2.25
1752.75
130.95
3.0 to 6.0
Basalt
21
Parbhani
1.90
1339.5
135.85
3.0 to 6.0
Basalt
22
Buldana
0.50
218.5
34.3
<3.0
Basalt
23
Akola
2.95
2020.75
187.62
6.0 to 9.0
Basalt
24
Amravati
4.05
3005.1
278.23
3.0 to 6.0
Basalt & Alluvium
25
Yavatmal
1.15
1066.05
81.19
3.0 to 6.0
Basalt
26
Wardha
1.00
970.50
71.4
3.0 to 9.0
Basalt
27
Nagpur
14.65
15660.85
1191.04
3.0 to 9.0
Basalt Sediment-ary & Crystalline
28
Bhandara
0.65
795.6
56.74
3.0 to 6.0
Crystalline
29
Chandrapur
3.60
3999.6
240.12
3.0 to 6.0
Crystalline
30
Gadchiroli
0.35
486.04
24.81
3.0 to 6.0
Crystalline
 
Total
177.25
194359.78
7345.14
   
   
 
Feasibility of Artificial Recharge in Urban Areas  
 

The feasibility of artificial recharge in urban areas shall depend upon the sub-surface storage space available during monsoon period. Therefore the depth of water level, trend of ground water level and type of aquifers are considered in identifying the urban areas needing artificial recharge. The areas having shallow depth to water level i.e. less than 3 mbgl during post monsoon are not feasible for artificial recharge and have not been considered. The areas having deeper water level generally more than 3 m bgl and with declining water levels are considered for artificial recharge to ground water using source of roof top rainwater harvesting and runoff water harvesting.
   
 
Considering the field data base of decadal average depth to water level ( 1989-98), a list of urban areas in each district is prepared as shown in Appendix II where artificial recharge to groundwater is feasible. However, detailed survey would be required for each urban area for site specific schemes. In certain cities only part of their areas shall have feasibility for artificial recharge through roof top rainwater harvesting.
   
 
Cost Estimate for Rainwater Harvesting and Artificial Recharge in Urban Areas  
 

In the state of Maharashtra around 232 urban areas have been identified for artificial recharge. The cost estimate of artificial recharge scheme using both the rooftop rainwater and the storm water runoff from open ground are worked out as follows.
   
 

1. Roof-Top Rainwater Schemes:
 
The number of houses in 232 urban areas of the state are around 35,14,500 as per 1991 census. The houses having dug-well or bore-well etc. are targeted for recharging the ground water reservoir through roof top rainwater harvesting. It is observed that on an average only 25% of the houses are having their own well in the premises, which can be utilized for harnessing roof top Rainwater. The remaining around 8.78 lakhs houses shall be required to be covered under this scheme wherein well for recharge has to be constructed. The average cost expenditure for providing the necessary arrangements through pipe fittings etc. shall cost around Rs. 6000/- per house. Thus a total cost of Rs. 527/- crores is estimated in the state for roof top Rainwater recharge. This will ensure the utilization of 50 MCM of roof top water supply available for artificial recharge in monsoon and non-monsoon seasons every year.

   
 

2. Runoff Water Harvesting Schemes:

The rainfall runoff flowing from the roads and open grounds is substantial during rains. This water often creates the water logging and the drainage system is put under stress in the urban agglomerates. This ultimately flows out of the city unutilized. This water if conserved and utilized properly for recharging the ground water reservoir may bring much needed relief to the water scarcity areas of the city. A scheme suitable for artificial recharge in urban area is prepared by C.G.W.B. and is successfully implemented and operated at Nagpur Municipal Corporation ground. The design and plan of the scheme is presented in figure 3. In this scheme about 15000 sq. m of residential catchment was intercepted and runoff generated was diverted into the specially constructed recharge well in the public garden. The runoff water was filtered silt free by providing a filter pit as shown in fig 3. Number of such locations can be identified within city areas where such structures may be constructed to provide a sustainable ground water based water supply in the city.

   
 
It is estimated that in 232 urban areas of Maharashtra around 3500 schemes would be needed with an average of 15 schemes per town/city. This will represent over 1 sq. km. of urban area per recharge well. The average cost of the recharge well, filter pit, pipe line and development of surrounding space will be around Rs. one lakh. Therefore an expenditure of Rs.35 crores is estimated. Thus total cost of urban recharge schemes shall be around Rs.527 + 35 i.e. 562 crores.
   
 
Benefit of Recharge in Urban Area  
   
The per capita consumption of water varies from small town to cosmopolitan city between 120 to 270 lits./day/capita. However to calculate the benefit of 45 MCM of recharge water (90% of roof water) an average of 150 lits/day/person is considered for the entire urban Maharashtra. It is estimated that more than 8 lakhs additional population will get adequate domestic water supply round the year through augmented ground water in Maharashtra. This will also ensure the sustainability of ground water resources during the peak demand period of summer.
   
  Watersheds identified for Artificial Recharge in Maharashtra

DISTRICT

 TALUKA

  WATERSHED

 
1
Bhandara
 Pavni, Arjuni Morgaon.
WGG-5, WGG-4, WGG-3,
WGM-2,WG-12(F),WGH,WGC-6, WGB(F).
2
Gadchiroli
 Kulrkheda,Charmosi,Aheri.
WGB-3,WGM-ST(F),WGKS-3,WGKS-1,
WGK-3,WGKT,PRDI(F),
PRD2(F),PRD,PR-4,PR-3.IVP.
3
Chandrapur
 Gondpimpri, Mul, Chandrapur,Bhadravati,Warora,Nagbid, Mul.
WGM-2,WGB,WGAML,WGAM-2(F),
WGAM(F),WGL,WGA-2,WGA-1,
WR-20(FWR-19,WR18,WRD,WR-5,
WR-22,WRE,WRK,WR-2(F),WRE-2,
WR-16,PG-1,PG2.
4
Nagpur
 Parasivni,Ramtek,Kalmeshwar,Katol,Hingna,Saoner,Narkhed.
WGKP-1(F),WGKP-4,WGS-1,
WGK-4,WGKP-3(F),
WGKP-2(F),WGK2(F),
WGK-1,WGK5,WGKK3,WRW5,
WRWB-2(F),WRJ-4,WRWBd-1,
WR.2,WRJ-1.
5
 
Wardha
 Devli,Selu.
WRWBd-4,WRWB-1,WRWB-2,WRWBd-2WRWBd-5,WRY-6,WR-7,WR-26(F),WR-25(F).
6
Yavatmal
 Wani,Maregaon,Kallamb, Babhulgaon & Yavatmal,Pusad  Mahagaon,Digras,Darwah.

WR-3(F),WR-2,WRB-6,WRB-5,
WRB-5,WRB-3,WRBM,PGA3,
PGAA-1(F),PGAA-2PGAA-3,PGP2,
PGP-5,WR-7,WR-8(F),WRN-2,WRN-1,
P4-12,PGV-2,PGV-1,PG-11,PGV-3.

7

Amravati

 Warud,Morshi,Chandur Bazar, Bhatkuli,Achalpur,Anjangaon,Daryapur& Amravati.
WR-1(F),WR-2(F),WR-3,WRG-1,
PTP-4,PTP-3,PTP-5,PTP-2(F),PTP,
PT-20(F),PT-3(F),PTG-3(F),PT-2(F),
PTCS-2(F),PTC-1,PTK-2(F),PTSI,
PTSB-1(F),PTSP(F)
8

Akola

Akot,Telhara, Akola, Balapur,Murtizapur Washim.
PGAA-4(F),PGAA-3(F), PGAA-2(F),
PT-4,PT26, PTK-1,PT-19(F),
PT-18,PTS(F),PT-5(F),PTST-1(F),
PTSB-1(F),PT-6(F),
PT-7(F),PTM-1,PT-8(F),PT-4,PT-17.
9

Nanded

Billori,Mukhed,Degloor Hingoli.
MR-59,MR63,MR-60,MR-61(F),MR-4(F), MR-50,MR-53,MR-65(F),MR-66(F).
10

Parbhani

Gangakhed,Basmat,Jintur,Parbhani.
GP-55,GP-60(F),GP-1,GP-53,GP-54,
GP-49,GP-50(F),GP-51,GP-57,
GP-56(F),GV-89, GV-97A,GV-96,GV-90A.
11

Latur

Nilanga,Ausa,Latur Ahmadpur.
GV-56B,GV97B(F),MR-34,MR-28,
MR-27,MR-29,MR-35(F),MR-56,MR-42,
MR-20,MR-26,MR-15(F0,MR-16(F).
12

Osmanabad

Omarga,Osmanabad,Kallamb,Paranda,Tulzapur.
MR-17,MR-16(F),MR-8(F),MR-7(F),
MR-10(F),SA-28A,SA-24,MR-9(F),MR-13, MR-18,MR-17,SA-40,SA-39.
13

Solapur

Karmala,Madha,Solapur,Akkalkoat,Mohal.
SA-41,SA-40,SA-38(F),SA-37,
SA-39(F),SA-36,SA-33(F),SA-34(F),
SA-31,SA-27,SA-22,SA-20,BM-79,
BM-91,BM-90,BM-99BM-89.
14

Ratnagiri

Rajapur,Lanja,Sangameshwar,Ratnagiri,Chiploon.
WF-71,WF-70,WF-65,WF-67,WF-64,
WF-62,WF-63
15

Satara

Karad.
KR-21,KR-20,KR-19.
16

Ahmadnagar

Sangamner,ShrirampurParner,Rahuri,AhmadnagarShrigonda,Shegaon,Jamkhed.
SA-18,SA-11,SA-5,BM-15,SA-4,SA-2,
SA-1GV-116(F),GV-124(F),GV-125,
GV-117,GV-118,GV-123(F),GV-119,
GV-120,GV-111(F),GV-112(F),GV-29B,
GV-25B,GV-22A,GV-110(F),
GV-109(F),GV-108(F),GV-106(F),
GV-114(F),GV-113(F),GV-115(F),
GV-137,GV-128,GV-134,
17

Nasik

Sinnar,Kalwan,Balgaon.
GV-16,GV-8,GV-15,TE-127,TE-108,
TE-26,TE-107,TE-116,TE-125,TE-92,
TE-106.
18

Beed

 Beed,Gevrai,Kaij,Ambajogari.
GV-64(F),GV-67(F),GV-68,GV-69,
GV-62,MR-6,MR-8,MR-18,MR-25,
MR-14,MR-3B,GV-97B,GV,GV-72.
19

Buldana

 In parts,Sangrampur,Jalgaon, Nandura,Shegaon,Balapur,Malkapur,KhamgaonTaluka.
PTM-1,PTMB(F),PTGB-1,PTMM,
PTG1M-1(F),PTG,PTG-5,
PTG1D-1(F),PTG1-1(F),PT-9(F),
PT-10,PT-11,PT-12,PTV-5(F),PTV-2(F),
PTV-1,PTN-2,PT-(F),PTN-1,PT-13(F).
20

Jalna

  Jalna,Ambad,Bhokardhan,Jafrabad Taluka.
GP-18A,GPD-1,GPD-2,GPD-3,GP-27(F), GP-32A(F),GP-12(F),GP-13(F),GP-5(F), GP-6(F),GP-14(F),GP-20(F),GP-19(F),
GP-22(F),GP-8(F),GP-23(F),GP-21(F),
GP-29(F),GP-32B(F),GP-21(F),GP-24(F),
GP-16(F),GP-17(F),GP-26,GP-25,GP-31, GV-68,GV-54(F),GV-55,GP-31.
21

Aurangabad

 Aurangabad,Khultabad,Kannad,Sillod,Vaizapur,Gangapur,Paithan,Soygaon.
GV-53,GV-52(F),GV-52A(F),GV-51(A),
GV-51(F),GV-48,GV-47(F),GV-42(F),
GV-37,GV-(F),GV-33B,GV-35(F),
GV-41(F),GV-47(F),GV-50(F),GP-17(F),
GP-17(F),GP-16(F),GP-10(F),GV-49(F),
GV-46(F),GV-34B(F),GV-(F),GP-9(F),
GP-8(F),GP-15(F),GV-45(F),GV-38A(F),
GV-44(F),GP-7(F),GP-14(F),GP-2(F),
GP-6(F),GP-5(F),TE-37B(F),GP-1,
TE-28B(F),GP-4(F),GP-13(F),GP-12(F),
TE-22(F),TEB(F),TE-15B(F),TE-10B(F), GP-18A(F).
22

Jalgaon

 Parts of Bhusaval,Muktainagar,Raver,Jalgaon,Yaval,Erandol,Amalner, Chopda,PachoraTalukas.
PTV(F),PT-13(F),PT,TE-1(F),TE-4(F),
TE-8(F),TE-9,TE-14,TE-13,TE-12(F),
TE-20,TE-27,TE-30,TE-31,TE-26(F),
TE-19(F),TE-31(F),TE-40,TE-42,TE-43, TE-48,TE-2,TE-3,TE-7,TE-11,TE-17,
TE-18,TE-25,TE-24,TE-41,TE-39,
TE-38,TE-29.
23

Dhule

 In parts of Sindhkhed,Sirpur,Shahada,Nandurbar, Taloda Taluka.
TE-64,TE-76,TE-54,TE-63(F),TE-62,
TE-75(F),TE-74,TE-86.TE-85,TE-84(F),
TE-98,TE-111,TE-121(F),NR-120,
TE-133(R),TE-141,TE-134,TE-122,TE-123, TE-99,TE-113,TE-114,TE-101.
24

Pune

Junner.
BM-4,GV-14(F),BM-5.
 

Appendix -II

  Urban Places identified for Artificial Recharge to Ground Water through Rainwater Harvesting in Maharashtra.
Sr. No.
District
No. of Towns
Name of the towns
1

Mumbai

1
Parts of Gr. Mumbai
2

Thane

2
Dhahanu and Talashri
3

Raigrah

1
Poladpur
4

Ratnagiri

7
Ratnagiri, Dapoli, Khed, Chiplun, Lanja, Sangmeshwar & Rajapur.
5

Sindhudurg

7
Kudal, Devgarh, Kankivili, Vaibhavwadi, Malvan, Vangurla and Savantwadi.
6

Nasik

10
Nasik, Dindori, Kalwan, Baglan, Niphad, Nandgaon, Chandori, Yeola
Malegaon and Sinnar.
7

Jalgaon

10
Jalgaon, Chopda, Yaval, Raver, Amalner, Edlabad, Bhusawal,
Jamner, Chalishgaon, Bhadgaon
8

Dhule/Nandurbar

10
Dhule, Sakri, Navapur, Nandurbar Taloda, Akkalkuwa, Dhadgaon,
Shahda, Shirpur, Sindkhed.
9

Ahmadnagar

13
Ahmadnagar, Rahuri, Shrirampur, Nevasa, Shegaon, Pathardi, Karjat
Jamkhed, Shrigonda, Parner, Akola, Sangamner and Kopargaon.
10

Aurangabad

8
Aurangabad, Khultabad, Kannad, Soyagaon, Sillod, Paithan, Gangapur, Vaijapur
11

Pune

6
Parts of Pune, Junnar, Shirur, Baramati, Indapur, Baramati.
12

Solapur

10
Solapur, Akkalkot, Mangelveda,
Pandharpur, Mohol, Madha, Karmala, Paranda, Barshi, Malsiras.
13

Kolhapur

4
Siror, Shahuwadi, Gagan, vavda, Ajra
14

Sangli

6
Sangli, Tasgaon, Kavtha, Mahakal, jath Khanapur.
15

Satara

10
Parts of Satara, Javali, Mahabaleshwar, Khandala, Wai,
Koregaon,Phaltan, Man, Khatav, and Kanad.
16

Jalna

5
Jalna, Ambad, Partur, Jafrabad, Bhokardan
17

Parbhani/ Hingoli

6
Parbhani,Jintur,Hingoli, Basmat,Gangakhed and Pathri.
18

Beed

5
Beed, Gevrai, Manjalgaon, Kaij, Patoda and Ashti.
19

Nanded

7
Nanded, Hadgaon, Bhokar, Degloor, Prilloli, Mukhed & Parts of Kandhar
20

Osmanabad

6
Osmanabad,Kalamb, Bhoom, Paranda, Tulzapur & Umarga.
21

Latur

5
Latur,Ahmadnagar,Udgir Nilangas, Ausa.
22

Amravati

13
Parts of Amravati, Chikhaldara, Achalpur,Morshi,Bhatkuli,Daryapur,
Anjangaon,Tiwsa,Chandur Rly. Nandgaon & Warad.
23

Akola/ Washim

13
Akola, Barshitakli, Patur,Malegaon, manora, Manglurpir, Washim,Risod,
Balapur,Murtizapur,Telhara, Akot & Karanja.
24

Yavatmal

11
Yavatmal, Babulgaon, Kalamb,
Ralegaon,Wani,Maregaon,Ghatangi, Digras,Mahagaon,Darwah,Neri.
25

Buldana

12
Chikhli,Khamgaon,Shegaon,Nandura, Shegaon, Malkapur,Algaon,
Sangrampur, Mehkar,Deolgaon raja, Lonar & Motala.
26

Nagpur

12
Parts of Nagpur City, Narkhed, Paraseon,Katol,Kalmeshwar,Saoner, Hingna,Umrer,Ramtek,Mouda, Bhivapur & Parts of Kuhi.
27

Bhandara/ Gondia

7
Parts of Bhandara city, Pawni,Sakoli, Goregaon,Deori, Arjuni Morgaon,
Mohadi & Gondia.
28

Wardha

8
Wardha,Devli, Arvi, Karanja, Ashti, karanja, Selu and Hinganghat.
29

Chandrapur

9
Chandrapur, Mul,Rajura,Gondpimpri, Bhadravati, Warora, Nagbhir, Chimur, Bhahampuri.
30

Gadchiroli

7
Gadchiroli, Aheri,Charmoshi, Dhanora, Armori & Kurkheda.
 

 

 
Scheme on Artificial Recharge of Ground Water through Dug Wells  Top
 

A State Sector Scheme on artificial recharge of ground water through dug wells has been announced by Government of India in view of the dwindling ground water resources in the shallow aquifer system of hard rocks in some of the States and the problems of ground water sustainability that are faced by the farmers especially by the marginal and small farmers. This scheme will be implemented over a period of three years.

The scheme aims at increasing the sustainability of dug wells during lean period, improving the agricultural productivity, drinking water availability, etc. and thus improving the quality of life of people in the ground water starving areas. Chemical quality of ground water is also expected to improve during this process and thus assures the local people with availability of good quality of ground water. This scheme is expected to bring awareness among the rural community regarding the importance of artificial recharge to ground water and the necessity that each farmer and each village has to contribute for this gigantic task of rejuvenating the phreatic aquifer and thus reactivating the old dug well system for extracting ground water for irrigation.

The marginal and small farmers, who are in possession of an irrigation dug well, are given subsidy directly through their personal bank accounts by Government of India. They are encouraged to construct an artificial recharge structure near their irrigation wells and divert the rainfall falling in their fields to pass through the recharge structure and recharge the ground water through dug wells. Appropriate guidelines are being provided by the concerned Ground Water Departments and Nodal Agencies of concerned State Governments and Central Ground Water Board for implementation of the scheme. State Level and District Level Committees are formed to oversee the implementation of the Scheme.

In the State of Maharashtra, the scheme is being implemented in 31 Talukas of 11 Districts where the ground water development is more than 70% of the available resource. The districts are Ahmadnagar, Amravati, Buldhana, Jalgaon, Latur, Nagpur, Nashik, Osmanabad, Pune, Sangli and Satara.

 
Success stories Top
 
 
Watershed WR-2, Amravati District
 
 

The watershed WR-2 covers an area of about 488.7 sq. kms and is located in Warud taluka of Amravati district. This watershed is underlain by basalts and represents a hard rock terrain. The watershed covers 96 villages and due to over-exploitation of ground water for orange cultivation, the water levels are declining @ 0.20 m/year. Three percolation tanks and 10 cement plugs have been constructed.


 
 

Percolation Tanks
 
Three Percolation tanks at Manikpur, Benoda and Bhimdi with gross storage capacity varying from 71 to 221. thousand cubic metres(TCM) have been constructed. The recharge to ground water from percolation tanks varied from 49 to 132 TCM during 1997-98. These tanks contained water for 180 to 252 days. Around 60 to 120 ha of area downstream of percolation tanks was benefited by the recharge from percolation tanks. Around 1-4m, 4-9m, and 6-10m rise in water levels was observed during 1997-98. A total of 298.4 TCM of additional recharge from these three percolation tanks is capable of bringing about 60 ha of additional land under assured irrigation in a year.

Cement Plugs

Ten cement plugs having a storage capacity of 2.1 to 7.42 TCM have been constructed. The efficiency of cement plugs varies from 81.1 to 97.5 %. In general 3 to 6 fillings are observed during the monsoon and capacity utilisation of cement plugs is at times up to 400 % of storage capacity. During 1997-98, ten cement plugs recharged around 58.7 TCM to ground water which brought an additional area of 11.7 ha under assured irrigation.

 

 
 
Location of Recharge Structures constructed In WR-2 Watershed, Warud Taluka, Amravati District, Maharashtra.

 
 
SR.NO.
NAME OF THE RECHARGE STRUCTURE
NO.OF RECHARGE STRUCTURES CONSTRUCTED
LOCATION OF RECHARGE
STRUCTURES
GROSS STORAGE IN THOUSANDS CUBIC METRES
AVERAGE BENEFITED AREA BY EACH STRUCTURE IN HECTARE
EFFICIENCY
1
Percolation Tanks
3
Manikpur
Benoda
Bhimdi
220.6
198.0
71.0
50-100
78-91%
2
Cement Plugs
(Nallah Bunds)
10
Temburkheda I
Temburkheda II,
Malkhed
Loni I
Loni II
Sendurjanaghat I
Sendurjanaghat II
Alora
Benoda
Mamdapur
7.42
4.79
2.10
2.21
3.60
5.67
2.49
3.23
5.30
3.24
10
81-97.5%
3
Under Ground Bandharas (UGB)
Peth Mangruli,Bahada, Nandgaon, Haturna I&II Localised Impact
 
     
 
Watershed TE-17, Jalgaon District
 
 

The watershed TE-17 covers an area of about 235 sq.kms and is located in Yaval taluka of Jalgaon district. This watershed is underlain by alluvium and represents soft rock terrain. Due to extensive banana cultivation, the ground water declines @ 1m/year. A total of 10 recharge structures have been constructed and the details are given in Table 2 below:


 
     
  Table -2: Location of Recharge Structures Constructed in TE-17 Watershed, Yaval Talukka., Jalgaon District, Maharashtra.
 
 
SR.NO.
NAME OF THE RECHARGE STRUCTURE
NO.OF RECHARGE STRUCTURES CONSTRUCTED
LOCATION OF RECHARGE
STRUCTURES
STORAGE CAPACITY IN THOUSANDS CUBIC METRES
AVERAGE BENEFITED AREA BY EACH STRUCTURE IN HECTARE
EFFICIENCY
1
Percolation Tank(PT)
3
  Ichkeda  
Haripura
Dongaon
45
12
11
200 to 300
95-97%
2
Conversion of VT into PT
2
Baghjira  
Haripura
6
22
100 to 200
95-97%
3
Nallah diversion to utilise the existing capacity of PT
1
Nagadevi
350
300 to 400
95-97%
4
Injection well
1
Dambhurni
Intake
Capacity 3000 to 5000 Liters/hrs.
1
95%
5
Recharge Shaft
2
Savkheda Nagjhira
1440
480 m3/day
(Recharge capacity)
3
95%
6
Dug well recharge
1
Giradgaon
(Rate recharged) 30,000 - 70,000
Liters/hrs.
3
95%
 
     
 

It was observed that the efficiency of percolation tanks is up to 97% and the capacity utilisation due to repetitive fillings in case of new percolation tanks constructed under this project is around 140 to 450%. The area benefited ranges from 100-400 ha. The two recharge shafts constructed at Savkheda and Nagjhira have augmented around 23.60 TCM during 1997. It is observed that percolation tanks are the most suitable surface structures in Bazada zone and the recharge shafts are considered as most efficient schemes in deep water table mountain front area. In watershed TE-17, about 605 TCM can be conserved in surface structures benefiting more than 1000 hectares of land. Among the sub-surface structures, recharge shafts and dug well recharge techniques are cost affective. The injection well method of recharging aquifer is comparatively expensive.

 
 
 
Watershed TE-11, Jalgaon District
 
 

The watershed TE-11 in Yaval tahsil of Jalgaon district covering 28 villages has an area of 371 sq.kms and falls in Tapi River basin. The main water bearing formations are alluvium as well as Talus and Scree deposits. A total of 10 recharge structures have been constructed and the details are given in Table3:

 
 
  Table 3 : Location of Recharge Structures Constructed in TE-11 Watershed, Yaval Taluka, Jalgaon District.
 
 
SR.NO.
NAME OF THE RECHARGE STRUCTURE
NO.OF RECHARGE STRUCTURES CONSTRUCTED
LOCATION OF RECHARGE
STRUCTURES
STORAGE CAPACITY IN THOUSANDS CUBIC METRES
RECHARGE TO GROUND WATER IN
CUBIC METRES
1
Percolation Tank
5
Vadri
Sangvi
Dongarda I
Dongarda II
DongardaIII
98
71
32
25
58
11230
33360
6580
8850
28083
2
Recharge Shaft
5
Borkheda
Vadri
480 to 1440 m3 /day

(Recharge capacity)
3000 to 30,000
 
     
 

(a) Percolation tanks: Five Percolation tanks at Wadri, Sangvi and Dongarda with gross storage capacity varying from 71 to 98 TCM have been constructedand were monitored during the first year of its completion. The catchment areas of individual tanks varies from 0.425 to 4.273 sq.km. The combined storage capacity of all five percolation tanks is 285.89 TCM. The recharge to ground water from percolation tanks varied from 6.580 to 28.083 TCM. The submergence areas of these tanks varies from 12.35 to 42.0 Th sq m. The cost-benefit ratio of these tanks varies between 1.12 and 2.30

 
 
 

(b) Recharge Shafts: The water levels of 42 observation wells, located around the five recharge shafts, were monitored weekly from June to Dec. 01 and afterwards monitoring was taken monthly upto March 02. The water levels in these wells ranged between 23.20 and 100.00 m bgl. 21 wells have gone dry during March 2002. The period of water impounded were 79, 40 and 11 days for Borkheda recharge Shaft. Wadri Circular II and Wadri Square II recharge shafts respectively.

 
 
Ahmadnagar District

Hiware Bazaar

In the village of Hiware Bazaar, a rain shadow area with an annual rainfall of 400 mm, the village community has demonstrated the benefits of rain water harvesting, artificial recharge to ground water, conservation and management of ground resources. Ground water levels have become shallow (4 to 6 m from ground surface) even during summer season. Vegetation cover and soil moisture have increased. As a result, socioeconomic condition of the villagers has improved tremendously. The village panchayat has been awarded with "National Water Award", for their excellent work  in enhancing the process of recharge to ground water which has resulted in bringing a sea-change in the lives of the villagers, for the year 2007 by the Ministry of Water Resources, Govt. of India.

Contour trenches along hill slope

Nagpur District

Ramtek

A demonstrative project of roof-top rain water harvesting has been implemented by CGWB in Kavikulguru Institute of Technology and Science (KITS), Ramtek, Nagpur district. Roof-top area of 360 sq m of Information Technology building has been used to harvest rain water and divert the same to recharge ground water through an existing dug well in the premises of the Institute. Rainfall from the roof of the building was diverted through a system of pipes, silt settlement chamber with overflow arrangement, on-line sand filter, flow meter, control valve to the recharge well. 

Analysis of water level data collected from the recharge well and an observation bore well has indicated a substantial imporvement in water level as well as the well yields in the area. As per estimation, a total of 215.7 cu. m of rain was received on the roof of the building, out of which 19 cu. m was actually recharged into the ground water system through the dug well.

This project has been implemented to familiarise the Government, Public Sector organisations, Industries, NGOs, voluntary organisations, Academic Institutes, etc. with the field demonstration of benefit of harvesting rain water on the building roof-tops and helping in recharging the aquifers for meeting the ever increasing demand for ground water.