Q1 : Which is the apex organisation of the Ministry of Jal Shakti dealing with the ground related issues?

Ans: Central Ground Water Board (CGWB) is the apex organization of the Ministry of Jal Shakti dealing with ground water and related issues.


Q2 : What is the mandate of Central Ground Water Board (CGWB)?

Ans: The Central Ground Water Board has mandate to “Develop and disseminate technologies, and monitor and implement national policies for the scientific and sustainable development and management of India’s ground water resources, including their exploration, assessment, conservation, augmentation, protection from pollution and distribution, based on principles of economic and ecological efficiency and equity”.


Q3 : What is the Vision of Central Ground Water Board ?

Ans: Sustainable Development and Management of Ground Water Resources of the Country.


Q4 : What is Mission of CGWB


  • To develop ground water policies, programmes and practices to monitor and enable effective use of the country’s ground water resources in a sustainable manner with active involvement of all stakeholders.
  • To put into place scientific system and practices, which would result in sustained increase in ground water use efficiency.
  • To disseminate information, skills and knowledge, which would help in capacity building and mass awareness in ground water sector.


Q5 : What are the main activities of CGWB?

Ans: The main activities of CGWB are :-

  • Ground Water Management Studies.
  • Ground Water Exploration Aided by Drilling.
  • Monitoring of Ground Water Observation Wells.
  • Short Term Water Supply Investigations.
  • Periodic Assessment of Ground Water Resources.
  • Hydrochemical Studies.
  • Geophysical studies.
  • Hydrological and Hydrometeorological studies.
  • Remote Sensing & GIS
  • Technical Documentation and Publication of Hydrogeological Atlases, Maps & Reports.
  • Publication of Quarterly Journal, `Bhujal-News':
  • Construction of Deposit Wells.
  • Organizing awareness Programmes, Exhibitions, Seminars, Work Shops etc.
  • Conjunctive Use of Surface and Ground Water
  • Mathematical Modeling studies.
  • Data Storage and Retrieval.
  • Artificial Recharge studies.
  • Organizing Training of officers and staff of Central/State Government organizations, institutes, NGO’S, VO’S etc
  • Monitoring of Ground Water Development.
  • R & D Studies
  • Special studies / Basic Research in Hydrogeology


Q6 : How many Regional, Divisional & State Unit Offices of CGWB?

Ans: CGWB has 18 Regional Offices each headed by a Regional Director, 17 Divisional Offices each headed by an Executive Engineer and 11 State Unit Offices for undertaking various activities in the country. The Central Headquarter is situated at Faridabad.


Q7 : What is the total availability of the surface and ground water resources in the country?

Ans: Estimated utilizable water resources of the country is 1123 Billion Cubic Meter(BCM)/year, out of which, share of surface water and ground water is 690 and 433 BCM/year respectively.


Q8 : What is stage of ground water development?

Ans: The stage of ground water development is a ratio of Annual Ground Water Draft and Net  Annual Ground Water Availability in percentage. Present stage of ground water development is 58%.


Q9 : What are over-exploited, critical and semi critical blocks?

Ans: The ground water resources are assessed in units i.e blocks/ talukas/ mandals/ watersheds. These assessment units are categorized for ground water development based on two criteria - a) stage of ground water development, and b) long-term of pre and post monsoon water levels. The long term ground water level trends are computed generally for the period of 10 years. The significant rate of water level decline are taken between 10 to 20 cm per year depending upon the local hydrogeological conditions. There are four categories, namely - 'Safe' areas which have ground water potential for development; 'Semi-critical' areas where cautious groundwater development is recommended; 'Critical' areas; and 'Over-exploited' areas, where there should be intensive monitoring and evaluation and future ground development be linked with water conservation measures. The details of criteria for categorization of assessment units are given in following Table –

Sr. No.

Stage of Ground water Development

Significant Long term Decline





<= 70%





>70% and <=90%








>90% and <=100%


No/ Yes














Q10 : How many assessment units are over-exploited, critical and semi critical in the country?

Ans: As per assessment carried out by CGWB in association with the State ground water organisations in 5723 ground water assessment units (i.e. blocks, mandals, talukas etc), the number of over-exploited, critical and semi critical assessment units is given below :-

Over-exploited - 839 , Critical - 226, Semi-critical – 550


Q11 : Whether CGWB monitors ground water levels in the country? How many ground water observation wells are being monitored?


  • Yes. CGWB monitors ~15640 ground water observation wells in the country. The water levels are monitored 4 times in a year in the months of January, April/ May, August & November. Water samples are collected once in the year in the month of April/May for ground water quality monitoring.
  • State Governments also have large number of stations and monitors as per  their schedule.


Q12 : Is there any law to prevent indiscriminate boring to abstract ground water?

Ans: Water being a State subject, the legislation for regulation and development of ground water is to be enacted by the State Governments/UTs. However, the Union Government has circulated a Model Bill to the States and Union Territories to enable them to enact suitable legislation for regulation and control of ground water development. The Bill was initially circulated in 1970 which has been re-circulated in 1992, 1996 and 2005 for enactment.


Q13 : How many states have enacted legislation on ground water?

Ans: So far 11 States/UTs have enacted Legislations on the lines of the Model Bill circulated by the MOWR. 18 other States/UTs are in the process of enactment of the Legislation.


Q14 : Whether Government has constituted any Authority to regulate and control the development and management of ground water?

Ans: The Union Government has constituted the Central Ground Water Authority (CGWA) on 14th January 1997 under Section 3(3) of Environment (Protection) Act, 1996 with objective to regulate and control development and management of ground water with jurisdiction in whole of the country.


Q15 : What regulatory actions have been taken by CGWA so far?

Ans: As a regulatory measure, the CGWA has taken following action:

  • Notified 162 Over-exploited areas in the country for regulation of ground water development and management. In these notified areas, installation of new ground water abstraction structures is being regulated.
  • Notified 162 Over-exploited areas  in various States for registration of ground water abstraction structures, which showed a very steep decline in ground water levels and required action for regulation. Another Overexploited areas are under process for notification for registration of ground water abstraction structures.
  • Regulating development of ground water by new industries/ projects in Over-exploited/ Critical/ Semi- critical areas. Issued directions to Group Housing Societies, Institutes, Hotels, Industries, Farm Houses, etc. in the notified areas of Delhi, Faridabad, Gurgaon and Ghaziabad and other areas of NCT Delhi where ground water table is below 8 metres from ground surface, to adopt rain water harvesting system.
  • Directed concerned States to take measures to adopt artificial recharge to ground water/ promote rain water harvesting in all the Over-exploited areas falling under their jurisdiction and ensure inclusion of roof top rain water harvesting in the building bye-laws.


Q16 : What is need for rain water harvesting and artificial recharge of ground water?

Ans: The need for adopting rain water harvesting is –

  • To overcome the inadequacy of surface water to meet our demands.
  • To arrest decline in ground water levels.
  • To enhance availability of ground water at specific place and time and utilize rain water for sustainable development.
  • To increase infiltration of rainwater in the subsoil which has decreased drastically in urban areas due to paving of open area.
  • To improve ground water quality by dilution.
  • To increase agriculture production.
  • To improve ecology of the area by increase in vegetation cover etc.

Q17 : Rain water harvesting initiatives?

Ans: Efforts made in the direction of facilitating :-

Storage of rainwater on surface for future use.
Recharge to ground water.
Areas are-

Urban Areas
Roof top rain water/storm runoff harvesting through

  1. Recharge Pit
  2. Recharge Trench
  3. Tubewell
  4. Recharge Well

Rural Areas
Rain water harvesting through

  1. Gully Plug
  2. Contour Bund
  3. Gabion Structure
  4. Percolation tank
  5. Check Dam/Cement Plug/Nala Bund
  6. Recharge Shaft
  7. Dugwell Recharge
  8. Ground water Dams/subsurface Dyke


Q18 : Whether any plan has been prepared by the Government on artificial recharge to ground water ?

Ans: A conceptual report on “Master plan for artificial recharge to ground water in India” has been prepared by Central Ground Water Board and circulated to the States/ UTs. An area of 4.5 lakh sq km in different parts of the country has been identified feasible for artificial recharge. The volume of water that can be recharged is assessed as 36.45 bcm through construction of 39.25 lakh structures.


Q19 : Whether Govt. is planning to implement any scheme on rain water harvesting during XI Plan?


  • A scheme on dugwell recharge formulated in the Ministry of Jal Shakti for implementation in ‘Over-exploited’ and ‘Critical’ blocks of 7 States viz. Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh, which are predominantly underlain by hard rock. The objective of the scheme is to increase recharge to ground water reservoir by utilizing the runoff generated in the agricultural fields. The runoff generated in the agricultural fields will be diverted to existing dugwells for recharging ground water.
  • Central Ground Water Board has proposed to take up 75 demonstrative  studies on ground water management through artificial recharge and rain water harvesting in over-exploited and critical areas, urban areas, water scarce areas etc. under the On-going Central Sector Scheme of Ground Water Management and Regulation (Renamed from Ground Water Survey, Exploration and Investigation). 21 such studies have been initiated during the 2007-08.


Q20 : What steps have been taken by the Govt. to make rain water harvesting mandatory in the States?


  • The Ministry of Jal Shakti has advised the States/ UTs to make provision for construction of roof top rain water harvesting structures in all the Government buildings in their Plan schemes.
  • Central Ground Water Authority, has directed under Section 5 of the EPA, the States having OE and Critical blocks to take all necessary measures to promote/ adopt artificial recharge to ground water/ rain water harvesting, ensure inclusion of Roof top Rain Water Harvesting in building bye laws and promote conservation of ground water in these areas through mass awareness, water management training or by issuing necessary orders etc.
  • The Authority has issued directives under Section 5 of the EPA to Group Housing Societies, Institutions/ Schools, Hotels, Industrial establishments and farm houses in notified areas of NCT Delhi, parts of Haryana and Uttar Pradesh to adopt roof top rain water harvesting systems.
  • All Group Housing Societies located in NCT Delhi in areas where ground water levels are more than 8 m and are abstracting ground water have been directed by the Central Ground Water Authority to adopt roof top rain water harvesting systems.


Q21 : What is the status of action initiated by various States/ UTs for rainwater harvesting mandatory?

Ans: States of Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Ranchi Regional Development Authority, Bombay Municipal Corporation and Pimpri – Chinchwad Municipal Corporation, Municipal Corporation of Ludhiana, Improvement Trust, Jalandhar, Jaipur Municipal Corporation, Mussorie Dehradun Development Authority, and Union Territories of Delhi, Daman & Diu and Puducherry have made necessary provision in their building bye-laws to make installation of rain water harvesting system mandatory. Andaman & Nicobar, Lakshadweep and Karnataka have initiated action for the purpose. Formulation of a comprehensive Water Law is under active consideration of the Govt. of Orissa. Necessary measures for making roof top rain water harvesting mandatory will be taken in accordance with the Law, as and when required.


Q 22 : What are the efforts made by the CGWB to popularize rain water harvesting and artificial recharge to ground water?


  • Conducted ~340 mass awareness programmes on Rain Water Harvesting and Artificial Recharge of ground water throughout the country involving Central/State/ NGO’s, VO’s, welfare organizations, educational institutions, industries and individuals. · Conducted ~270 training programmes to generate resource persons as a measure of capacity building for designing rain water harvesting structures to augment ground water in different terrains and diverse hydrogeological conditions.
  • Films produced by Central Ground Water Authority on Rain water harvesting in Urban areas, Rain water harvesting in Rural areas, Ground Water Pollution etc. are shown during various mass awareness and training programmes.
  • A concept report titled ‘Master Plan for Artificial Recharge to Ground Water’ has been prepared by Central Ground Water Board. The report has been circulated to all the States/ UTs.
  • CGWB has prepared a Manual and subsequently a Guide on Artificial Recharge to Ground Water which provide guidelines on investigation techniques for selection of sites, planning & design of artificial recharge structures, economic evaluation & monitoring of recharge facility. The manual was circulated to the States/ UTs. It is of immense use to States/ U.Ts in planning and implementation of recharge schemes for augmentation of ground water in various parts of the country. The manual has recently been updated incorporating the latest advances in the field of rain water harvesting and artificial recharge.


Q23 : Whether Ministry of Jal Shakti has constituted Advisory Council for Artificial Recharge Of Ground Water? What is its constitution and terms of reference?


  • The Government has constituted an Advisory Council for Artificial Recharge of Ground Water in the year 2006 under the Chairmanship of Hon'ble Minister (WR).
  • Main objective of Advisory Council is to popularize the concept of artificial recharge among all stakeholders and its adoption.
  • The Advisory Council comprises of Members from different concerned Central Ministries/Departments, representatives of State Governments, Public Undertakings, Financial Institutions, representative of Industries and renowned Subject Experts/Farmers/NGOs.

The terms of reference of the Council are as follows-

  • Prioritizing the areas
  • Area Specific Technology
  • Co-ordination among various Central and state organizations.
  • Co-ordination among NGO’S, Industries/ State holders.
  • Periodic review of action taken by Central & States.
  • Power to setup sub-committees-function/ area based
  • Funding strategies including private participation
  • Role of stake holders
  • Creating awareness/ education/capacity building
  • R&D - especially of development of low cost technology


Q24 : Information on National Ground Water Congress.

Ans: The National Ground Water Congress provides a platform for interaction among Scientists, Engineers, Planners, Policy Makers, Representatives of Industries, NGOs/VOs and Stakeholders on various aspects of ground water in order to evolve a suitable policy framework on an emergent ground water related issues.


Q25 : Whether Government has instituted awards for encouraging water conservation, artificial recharge, rainwater harvesting by NGOs/ Gram Panchayats/ Urban Local Bodies?


The Ministry of Jal Shakti has instituted annual awards namely Ground Water Augmentation Awards and National Water Award in the Year 2007.
There are 21 Awards including one National Water Award for following six categories:

  1. Non Government Organisations (NGOs)
  2. Gram Panchayats
  3. Urban Local Bodies (for population up to 1 lakh)
  4. Institutions implementing Farmers’ Participatory Action Research Programme.
  5. Corporate Sector – In promoting awareness, rain water harvesting, conserving water through recycling and re-use
  6. Individuals/Institutions engaged in developing new techniques for rainwater harvesting.

National Water Award is given from amongst these 21 award winners. National Water Award consist of a cash award of Rs. 10 lakhs and a plaque with citation and Ground Water Augmentation Award consisting of cash award of Rs.1.00 Lakh each and a plaque with citation.


Q26 : What is the postal addresses, telephone fax nos. etc and website of CGWB and CGWA?


Central Ground Water Board (CGWB)
Central Ground Water Board,
Bhujal Bhawan, NH-IV,
Faridabad – 121001

Tel. No. 0129 – 2419075
Fax No. 0129 – 2412524

email: chmn-cgwb@nic.in, tschmn-cgwb@nic.in

Website of CGWB : www.cgwb.gov.in

Central Ground Water Authority (CGWA)
Central Ground Water Authority,

Phone No.(011)  26175362 - Member(CGWA) & Member Secretary
(011) 26175367 -  Regional Director
(011) 26175316 and  26175373 (General)
Fax – (011) 26175369

email: mcgwa-cgwb@nic.in


Q1 : Who can submit new proposal?

Ans: Research proposals of applied nature as well as basic research can be submitted by the Universities, IITs, recognized R&D laboratories, Water Resources/Irrigation departments of the Central and State Governments and NGOs.


Q2 : What type of proposals are discouraged?

Ans: Following type of proposals are discouraged :-

  1. The proposals that merely plan to collect data and apply known existing techniques of analysis.
  2. The proposal that involves no R&D.
  3. Proposals where the investigations lack depth, where the methodology is shallow and superficial.


Q3 : What is the subject domain of the INCGW?

Ans: The subject domain of INCGW are –

  • Ground Water Recharge
  • Ground Water Quality
  • Climate Change
  • Ground water- Surface Water Interaction
  • Mathematical/simulation modelling
  • Ground water management
  • Geophysical Investigation
  • GIS & Remote Sensing

Q4 : At what time new proposals can be submitted?

Ans: Proposals can be submitted at any time of the year.


Q5 : What is the procedure for approval?

Ans: Proposal is initially examined at the INC.  The proposal is sent to the experts and end user agencies.  On receipt of their comments, the PI is conveyed the same and is asked to make a presentation before the committee members in the meeting of INCGW for recommendation.  The PI may be asked to modify the proposal on the basis of suggestions of the committee members, experts and end user agencies.  The proposals recommended by the INCGW are sent to the R&D Division of the Ministry for final acceptance and issuance of the sanction orders.


Q6 : Who issues final sanction order?

Ans: R&D Division of Ministry of Water Resources issues final sanction orders and releases the money.


Q7 : What items can be funded?

Ans: Funding is provided for payment of salaries to the research staff (JRF/SRF/RA), purchase of equipment, books and journals, cost of conducting experiment including consumables and for travel.


Q8 : Can PI claim Salary or honorarium under the scheme?

Ans: No, PI cannot claim Salary or honorarium. Salary is paid only to research staff recruited by the PI.


Q9 : How many research staff can be recruited?

Ans: A limited number generally one or two research staff as Junior Research Fellow (JRF), Senior Research Fellow (SRF), Research Associate (RA) and Consultants can be employed for assisting the PI in conducting the research.  Retired scientists and engineers can be employed as Consultants. However, MoWR prefers involvement of younger personnel.  Highly distinguished scientists and engineers whose involvement is absolutely essential may be engaged as Consultants.  


Q10 : What is the eligibility criteria for recruitment of research staff and emoluments for them?

Ans: Research staff is to be recruited as per the DST guidelines and emoluments will also be paid to them as per the current DST guidelines.

Q11 : Which documents are to be annexed with the application?

Ans: Proforma Invoices of the items proposed for procurement under head Infrastructure. List of equipment/facilities available at the institute.


Q12 : Under which head the salary of field assistant or lab assistant etc. who are employees of the institute can be claimed?

Ans: No salary of the lab or field assistant who are employees of the institute can be claimed. However, provision for nominal honorarium to the field or lab assistant etc, can be claimed under Experimental head.

Q13 : Can salary of personnel who is not employee of the institute be claimed?

Ans: Yes, Salary of personnel not engaged directly in research may be claimed under Experimental head provided that such staff is specifically recruited for the research and will be working full time only for the said research.


Q14 : What are the Over head charges?

Ans: When the host institution to which the PI belongs provides any facilities for conducting the research such as infrastructure or staff, then the Overheads upto 20% of the total cost can be charged as Overheads.  However, there is an upper limit of Rs.5 lakh for educational institutions and Rs.3 lakh for laboratories and institutes under S&T agencies or departments.


Q15 : When are the Overheads payable to the Institutes?

Ans:   Overhead Charges are payable to the host institution only after the completion of  the study and acceptance of the final report by the Ministry.


Q16 : What is Contingency?

Ans: Contingency is not a separate head of expenditure.  There are only four sub heads for expenditure, namely Salary, Travel, Experimental Charges, Infrastructure.  A provision of 5% of the total cost of these can be made under contingency.  However, contingency is only budget provision for unforeseen situations; for possible errors in estimation of four main sub heads.  No expenditure can be incurred under this head.


Q17 : What is the responsibility of the PI?

Ans: The work is to be completed at the earliest and within the sanctioned duration. 
There should be no deviation from the stated objectives.
There should be no deviations in the expenditure under each sub head. 
Submission of various periodic returns to INC in time.
Ensuring compliance with the “Conditions of Grant”.


Q18 : Can deviations from the stated objectives be allowed?

Ans: No, objectives cannot be changed once the scheme is sanctioned.


Q19 : Can transfer of funds or deviations from the sanctioned amount allowed?

Ans: Expenditure under each sub head should not exceed the sanctioned amount    for each sub head.  No transfer of funds from one head to another head is allowed. Expenditure should be booked under each head as per the actuals.


Q20 : What is the starting date of the scheme?

Ans: The starting date for the scheme shall be taken as the date on which the first activity of study is initiated which however shall not be later than three months from the receipt of the Bank Draft by the institute.  This date shall be intimated by the PI to the INC.


Q21 : When the progress report is to be submitted to INC?

Ans: Progress report is to be submitted in the months of August and December.  Annual Progress report is to be submitted in the month of April alongwith the audited Utilization Certificate for the respective year.  Information is to be provided as per the prescribed format only.


Q22 : What is to be done with the unspent balance of a financial year?

Ans: Effort should be made by the PI to utilize the funds released for the financial year with in that year itself. Any unspent balance will be carried over to the next financial year but cannot be utilized by the PI until it is revalidated by the Ministry. Application for revalidation of funds should be submitted to the INC by 30th April of the next financial year.


Q23 : What is the schedule of release of funds?

Ans: Release of subsequent instalments of funds is subject to satisfactory progress of the work.  For this progress of milestones achieved and amount to be released after achieving the each milestone along with the time schedule of each milestone should be clearly identified.


Q24 : What is to be done after completion of the work?

Ans: PI should submit the draft report to the INC alongwith the audited Consolidated UC’s and subhead wise Expenditure statement.


Q25 : What is to be done if there is any unspent balance in the scheme after completion of the study?

Ans: The unspent balance is to be refunded by a crossed Demand draft in favour of PAO, MoWR.

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Last updated on : 21/09/2023