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Ground Water is a Precious National Resource - Preserve it, Protect it and Don't Pollute it.

State Profile

Ground Water Scenario of Kerala

Area (


Rainfall (mm)


Total Districts / Blocks

14 Districts 


Physiographically, the State can be divided into three zones namely the Coastal plains, the Midlands and the Hill ranges. Major portion of the State is underlain by the crystalline rocks of Archaean age. Sedimentary formations of Eocene to Recent overlie these crystalline rocks along the coastal belt. The tubewells tapping the aquifers in crystalline rocks yield between 6-10 m3/hr. The midland area is capped by laterites where the yield of tube well varies from 10-15 m3/hr. In the coastal area, where Tertiary formations possess promising aquifers, the tube wells yield 12-15 m3/hr under free flow conditions.

Dynamic Ground Water Resources (2011)

Annual Replenishable Ground water Resource

6.69 BCM

Net Annual Ground Water Availability

6.07 BCM

Annual Ground Water Draft

2.84 BCM

Stage of Ground Water Development

47 %

Ground Water Development & Management

Over Exploited

1 Blocks


2 Blocks

Semi- critical

23  Blocks

Artificial Recharge to Ground Water (AR)




  • Area identified for AR: 10849 sq km
  • Volume of water to be harnessed: 1520 MCM
  • Volume of water to be harnessed through RTRWH:181.44 MCM
  • Feasible AR structures: 
  1. Percolation tank – 3109
  2. Check dams       - 3032
  3. Sub surface dam – 832
  4. Nala Bund           - 54957
  5. Gabian Bund       - 106173
  6. I W                    -  45
  7. Gully  plug          - 586279
  8. RTRWH (H)         - 299250
  9. RTRWH (G&I)      - 15750   

 Ground Water Quality Problems


Districts affected (in part)

Salinity  (EC > 3000 µS/cm at 25 ° C)

Thiruvananthapuam, Kollam,  Ernakulam, Thrissur, Malappuram

Fluoride (>1.5 mg/l)

Palakkad, Alappuzha, Idukki, Ernakulum, Thiruvananthpuram.

Iron (>1.0 mg/l)

Alappuzha, Ernakulam, Idukki, Kannur, Kasaragod, Kollam, Kottayam, Kozhikode, Malappuram, Palakkad, Pathanamthitta,  Thiruvananthapuram, Thrissur, Wayanad

Nitrate  (>45 mg/l)

Alappuzha, Ernakulam, Idukki,Kannur,  Kollam, Kottayam, Kasargod, Kozhikode, Malappuram, Palakkad, Pathanamthitta, Thiruvananthapuram, Thrissur, Wayanad

Heavy metals:
   Lead (above 0.01 mg/l)
   Chromium (above 0.05 mg/l)


Lead: Ernakulam , Kollam
Chromium: Kollam

Central Ground Water Authority

Areas Notified for Regulation of ground water development